ANIMAL: Wild Water Buffalo Bubalus arnee Type of Animal: Wild Cattle Habitat: Wetlands, swamps, wet grassland, subtropical forest, tropical forest, river valleys, marshes, rivers, ponds, riverine forest, wet savanna, floodplains, wet woodland Location(s): India, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia. Formerly found in Pakistan, Bangladesh, Laos, & Vietnam. Appearance: Larger than domestic form. Bulls larger than cows. Horns heavy at base & are largest of any bovid. Cows have smaller, shorter horns. Skin color ash gray to black. Ears rather small w/ tuft on forehead. Bushy tail. 2nd largest wild cattle species. Food/Diet: Aquatic plants, grasses, herbs, sedges, bark, fruit, agricultural crops, wood, stems, leaves Status in Wild: Endangered Conservation: Translocation into areas where there is less risk of hybridizing w/ domestic & feral stock. Lifestyle: Herds consist of up to 30 cows, calves, & juveniles up to 3 years old, sometimes accompanied by a bull. Bulls found in bachelor herds of up to 10 animals. Older bulls solitary. Additional Info: Called: Male-Bull Female-Cow Young-Calf Group-Herd Weight: Male-2645 lbs Female-1764 lbs Young-750-900 lbs Gestation: 10 months Height: Male-6.23 ft Female-4.92 ft Body Length: Male-8.86 ft Female-7.87 ft Life Span: 15 years in wild, 25 years in captivity Tail Length: 2.62 ft, same for both sexes Main predators are tigers, dholes, black bears, & crocodiles. Leopards & clouded leopards prey on calves. Endangered due to hunting for meat/hide/horns/sport, wetland degradation, habitat loss, interbreeding w/ domestic /feral stock, diseases/parasites transmitted from cattle/domestic water buffalo, competition w/ domestic stock, & persecution as crop pests. Bulls sometimes fight to the death. While big, they can be surprisingly fast. Cows breed every 2 years. They’re the main ancestor to the domestic water buffalo. Roll in mud to keep cool & protect themselves from biting insects. Sexually mature at 1.5-2 years old. Fun Fact(s): Known as “living tractor of the east.” Unlike domestic water buffalo, these animals highly unpredictable. They often spend several hours of the day in the water, hence the name.