Wild Water Buffalo

ANIMAL:
Wild Water Buffalo                    Bubalus arnee

Type of Animal:
Wild Cattle

Habitat:
Wetlands, swamps, wet grassland, subtropical forest, tropical forest, river valleys, marshes, rivers, ponds, riverine forest, wet savanna, floodplains, wet woodland

Location(s):
India, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia. Formerly found in Pakistan, Bangladesh, Laos, & Vietnam.

Appearance:
Larger than domestic form. Bulls larger than cows. Horns heavy at base & are largest of any bovid. Cows have smaller, shorter horns. Skin color ash gray to black. Ears rather small w/ tuft on forehead. Bushy tail. 2nd largest wild cattle species.

Food/Diet:
Aquatic plants, grasses, herbs, sedges, bark, fruit, agricultural crops, wood, stems, leaves

Status in Wild:
Endangered

Conservation:
Translocation into areas where there is less risk of hybridizing w/ domestic & feral stock.

Lifestyle:
Herds consist of up to 30 cows, calves, & juveniles up to 3 years old, sometimes accompanied by a bull. Bulls found in bachelor herds of up to 10 animals. Older bulls solitary.

Additional Info:

Called:
Male-Bull
Female-Cow
Young-Calf
Group-Herd

Weight:
Male-2645 lbs
Female-1764 lbs
Young-750-900 lbs

Gestation: 
10 months

Height:
Male-6.23 ft
Female-4.92 ft

Body Length:
Male-8.86 ft
Female-7.87 ft

Life Span: 
15 years in wild, 25 years in captivity

Tail Length:
2.62 ft, same for both sexes

Main predators are tigers, dholes, black bears, & crocodiles. Leopards & clouded leopards prey on calves.

Endangered due to hunting for meat/hide/horns/sport, wetland degradation, habitat loss, interbreeding w/ domestic /feral stock, diseases/parasites transmitted from cattle/domestic water buffalo, competition w/ domestic stock, & persecution as crop pests.

Bulls sometimes fight to the death.

While big, they can be surprisingly fast.

Cows breed every 2 years.

They’re the main ancestor to the domestic water buffalo.

Roll in mud to keep cool & protect themselves from biting insects.

Sexually mature at 1.5-2 years old.

Fun Fact(s):
Known as “living tractor of the east.”

Unlike domestic water buffalo, these animals highly unpredictable.

They often spend several hours of the day in the water, hence the name.

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