Hamadryas Baboon

Hamadryas Baboon Papio hamadryas

Type of Animal:
Old World Monkey

Sub-desert, steppe, hilly areas, escarpments, alpine meadows, mountains, savanna, plains, arid brushland, high cliffs, rocky areas, grassland, suburbs, agricultural areas, desert

S. Red Sea area of Egypt and N.E Sudan, also found in parts of Ethiopia, Djibouti, Somalia, & Eritrea plus S.W Saudi Arabia & Yemen

Males much larger than females w/ bushy gray fur & mane, females brownish & smaller, females also lack mane, larger canine teeth in males.

Seeds, roots, bulbs, grasses, blossoms, leaves, invertebrates, reptiles, small mammals, berries, carrion, eggs, pods, fruit, grains, nuts, tubers, corms, rhizomes, tree gums, small birds, buds, shoots

Status in Wild:

Breeding in zoos & wildlife parks

4-tiered social structure: Basic social unit harem of male plus 2-11 females & offspring. 2-6 harems come together forming clans from 20-70 baboons. 2-3 clans come together forming bands of 70-200 baboons. 2-4 bands come together forming troops of 200-800 baboons. Harem-less males form bachelor groups of 10-25 baboons. Bachelor groups are often present in clans, bands, & troops.

Additional Info:


Male-37-55 lbs
Female-22-29 lbs
Young-3-8 lbs

6 months

Life Span:
35-40 years

Male-2 ft
Female-1.5 ft

Body Length:
Male-2.3-3 ft
Female-1.6-2.16 ft

Tail Length:
1.25-2 ft

Main predators are lions, leopards, & cheetahs. Verreaux’s Eagles only prey on young.

Vicious fights between males over harems can result in death from wounds inflicted by canine teeth.

When harem taken over, females go through pseudo-estrus in order for offspring to avoid being killed by new male.

Sometimes killed as crop pests for damage done to crops.

Unlike many other primates, they’re primarily terrestrial.

Very male-dominated society- harem males grab & bite females that stray too far.

Body language very important in Hamadryas Baboon society-staring, smiling, & head-bobbing are threat displays, touching noses & lip smacking are friendly expressions.

Dog-like bark made by males when predators are nearby.

Females sexually mature at 4 years old, males at 5-7 years old.

Smallest of the baboons.

They’re active during the day (diurnal).

Fun Fact(s):
Ancient Egyptian royalty often kept baboons as pets.

Often depicted in ancient Egyptian art as sacred attendants of Egyptian deity Thoth, who had head of baboon or ibis. In fact, species also known as Sacred Baboon.

Only non-human primate found in the Middle East.

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