ANIMAL: North American Elk Cervus canadensis Type of Animal: Deer Habitat: Forest edge, forests/woodlands of all types, mountains, semi-desert, plains, prairie, grassland, desert valleys & hills, meadows, suburbs, shrubland, steppe, foothills Location(s): Formerly found throughout much of U.S. & Canada. Now found in W. U.S & W. Canada w/ reintroductions into much of C. U.S, other parts of Canada, Appalachian region, a few islands in Alaska, & parts of Pennsylvania, Michigan, & Wisconsin. Appearance: Bull larger than cow & has antlers that shed yearly. Antlers hardest during rut (breeding season). Bulls have more well-defined neck mane. Copper brown in summer, light tan for rest of year, neck & legs darkest body parts, light beige rump patch. Food/Diet: Grass, bark, tree sprouts, forbs, twigs, shrubs, willows, aspen, clover, sedges, leaves, sagebrush, shrubs, seedlings, saplings, branches, lichens Status in Wild: Stable Conservation: Breeding from zoos, wildlife parks, & farms. Sometimes farmed for meat. Reintroduction into parts of former range. Lifestyle: Cows, calves, & juveniles found in herds of 20-50, sometimes up to 200, along w/ 2-5 bulls. Other bulls in bachelor herds of 10-25 animals. During rut, bulls gather harems of 20-25, (sometimes up to 60) cows. Additional Info: Called: Male-Bull Female-Cow Young-Calf Group-Herd/Gang Weight: Male-600-1,000lbs Female-300-600 lbs Young-175 lbs Gestation: 8.5 months Height: Male-5 ft Female-4.5 ft Body Length: Male-8 ft Female-6.5 ft Life Span: 13-15 years in wild, up to 20 years in captivity Main predators are wolves, coyotes, bears, mountain lions/pumas/cougars, & feral dogs. Bobcats & lynx only prey on calves. Fights between bulls during rut usually highly ritualized but sometimes antlers become locked & both bulls die of starvation Bulls very loud during rut, making bugle call. Older elk often have louder bugles. Fun Fact(s): Bulls lose lots of weight during fall rut since fighting & cows only things on his mind. When white settlers arrived in elk habitats, they would only hunt for meat/hide/sport & many Native Americans depended on these animals. Native Americans would use bones/antlers to make weapons, hides for war shields/shelter & teeth for necklaces/clothing decorations. Bones/hide also used in games. Were also hunted for meat. While relatively docile much of the time, it’s never advised to get too close to one (just like w/ any wild animal). Mothers protective of calves & bulls highly aggressive during rut. If you castrate a male deer, antlers become permanent since cycle based on testosterone levels. When levels highest, antlers hardest & when levels lowest, they fall off.
TRPV channels have been found to regulate cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, migration and invasion during tumor progression, and depending on the stage of the cancer, up and down regulation of TRPV mRNA and protein expression have been reported levitra overnight delivery TГјlay Kansu