ANIMAL: Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus Type of Animal: Sunfish Habitat: Clear fresh water w/ sandy/muddy/gravel bottoms & lots of vegetation- lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, creek pools, reservoirs, creeks, marshes, will utilize brackish water as well Location(s): Native to E US from E Dakotas/NE Nebraska through Midwest & as far N as Maine & far S as N/E Georgia as well as SE Manitoba, SW Ontario, far SE Ontario, S Quebec, & New Brunswick. Introduced/invasive in parts of West Virginia, S Ohio, S Indiana, S Illinois, parts of Missouri, part of S Iowa, N/E Nebraska, Dakotas, NW US, California, Arizona, throughout S Canada, much of Europe, Turkey, Georgia (the country), Chile, Venezuela, Brazil, W Russia, & parts of Africa. Appearance: Orange/green/yellow/blue fish w/ speckling over sides/back, yellow-orange breast/belly, faint green/blue vertical bars on sides (more prevalent in females), orange spots often cover dorsal/anal/tail fins, blue-lined cheeks, orange-red spot on margins of black gill cover, blackish dorsal spines, amber/clear pectoral fins, small pumpkinseed shaped body, males brighter than females in breeding season often w/ more reddish-yellowish-orangish, deep laterally compressed fish Food/Diet: Snails, worms, insects, small fish (including small members of own species), crustaceans, insect larvae, detritus, aquatic vegetation, tadpoles, small frogs, leeches, zooplankton, eggs, leaves, algae, shrimp larvae Status in Wild: Stable Conservation: Not applicable Lifestyle: Schools of 2-150 fish w/ juveniles/subadults in larger schools than adults. Colonial nesters w/ colonies comprising 3-15 nests-each guarded by territorial male. Multiple females use same nest & females often spawn in multiple nests. Fry live w/ dad for 1st 2 weeks of life. Additional Info: Called: Male Female Young: Fry/Fingerling Group: School Weight: Male: 0.78-2.4 oz Female: 0.53-2.32 oz Young: 0.055 oz Gestation: 3-5 days Life Span: 6-8 years Body Length: Male: 3.97-5.9 in Female: 3.54-5.78 in Young: 1.5 in Tail Length: 0.8 in, same for both sexes Main predators are larger fish (including larger members of own species), ospreys, eagles, hawks, herons, cormorants, waterfowl, raccoons, otters, muskrats, & shorebirds. Also called punkie, pond perch, common sunfish, sunfish, pumpkinseed sunfish, pumpkinseed fish, sunny, sun perch, & kivver. Where invasive, they outcompete native fish. Males flare gills in spawning season & both sexes flare them when threatened by predators. Sharp spines aid in defense. Fun Fact(s): These fish are very popular among anglers. Single female can lay more than 1,700 eggs in a season. Often mistaken for closely related Bluegills & sometimes hybridize w/ Bluegill. They often nest near Bluegill as well. Males highly protective of eggs/nest/young fry, often charging at people who get too close.