ANIMAL: River Water Buffalo Bubalus bubalis Type of Animal: Cattle Habitat: Farms, rivers, swamps, ponds, wetlands, tropical forest, subtropical forest, cities, wet grassland, marshes, riverine forest, wet woodland, river valleys, floodplains, wet savanna Location(s): Domesticated worldwide. Feral populations in Australia, India, Bangladesh, Indochina, Tunisia, & parts of C. & S. America. This type appears most in India, Pakistan, Bulgaria, Hungary, Turkey, Italy, Australia, C. & S. America, the U.S., & Egypt. Appearance: Bulls larger than cows, both sexes have horns, Anatolian/Turkish breed dark-grey to black w/ white markings on head/tail w/ sickle/crescent-shaped horns, Australian breed grey or black, Egyptian breed grey-black w/ short curved horns, Kundi breed black w/ small spirally twisted horns, Jafarabadi breed black w/ large droopy horns, Malaysian breed grey or white w/ crescent horns, Murrah breed jet-black w/ short, inward curving horns, Nili-Ravi breed black w/ small curly horns & white markings on legs/face/forehead/muzzle/tail, Pandharpuri breed black w/ white markings on forehead/legs/tail switch along w/ sword-shaped horns. Food/Diet: Aquatic plants, grasses, herbs, wood, stems, leaves, sedges, bark, fruit, alfalfa & lucerne hay, oats, reeds, roots, sugarcane, soybeans, peanuts, cassava, dates, maize, turnips, citrus pulp, vegetables Status in Wild: Domesticated Conservation: Breeding on farms. Bred for milk/meat/hides/draft. Can be hybridized w/ Swamp Water Buffalo. Bred on some ranches for commercial hunting. Lifestyle: Cows, calves, & juveniles live in herds of 10-40 animals, sometimes w/ a bull. Bulls & steers (castrated males) live in bachelor herds of 5-20 animals. Additional Info: Called: Male-Bull Female-Cow Young-Calf Group-Herd Weight: Male-1500-2200 lbs Female-1200-1600 lbs Young-480-685 lbs Gestation: 10.5 months Life Span: 25-40 years Height: Male-4.66 ft Female-4.33 ft Body Length: Male-11.8 ft Female-7.87 ft Tail Length: 2.5 ft Main predators are tigers, lions, bears, crocodilians, wolves, komodo dragons, dholes, & dingoes. Feral dogs, leopards, jaguars, & clouded leopards prey on calves. First domesticated in India about 5,000 years ago. Sexually mature at 1.5-2 years. Humans depend on this animal, along w/ the Swamp Water Buffalo more than any other domestic animal. Fun Fact(s): Traditional mozzarella cheese made from water buffalo milk. Often called “living tractors” cause of its use in plowing/transportation. Much more docile than wild counterparts, though moms still highly protective of calves & bulls can be somewhat unpredictable (especially during rut). Meat is said to be leaner than beef.