ANIMAL: White-Rumped Shama Thrush Copsychus malabaricus Type of Animal: Songbird Habitat: Lowland forest, dense hill forest, forest edge, overgrown orchards, overgrown plantations, undergrowth, bamboo forest, secondary forest, scrub, valley forests, volcanic ridges, swamp forest, forest clearings, mangroves, shady ravines, dense underbrush, mixed dipterocarp forest, coastal vegetated areas, dense Haole Koa thickets, suburban yards, parks w/ bamboo stands and/or large trees, botanical gardens w/ bamboo stands and/or large trees, school campuses w/ bamboo stands and/or large trees, can be found at altitudes ranging from sea level to 4,921.26 ft Location(s): Native to S & SE Asia. Introduced to Hawaiian Islands (Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, & Lanai) as well as Taiwan. Appearance: Males glossy black w/ chestnut belly & white feathers on rump/outer tail, females grayish-brown, females shorter than males, males have longer tails, both sexes have black bill & pink feet, juveniles grayish-brown w/ blotchy or spotted chest Food/Diet: Insects, insect larvae, worms, centipedes, spiders, eggs, fruit, legumes, berries Status in Wild: Stable Conservation: Breeding in zoos, wildlife centers, & aviculture Lifestyle: Male-female pairs or solitary Additional Info: Called: Male: Cock Female: Hem Young: Chick Group: Pair Weight: Male: 1.13 oz Female: 0.94 oz Gestation: 2 weeks Life Span: 6-7 years Height: Male: 10.6 in Female: 8.66 in Body Length: Male: 10.6 in Female: 8.66 in Tail Length: Male: 7.09 in Female: 5.7 in These birds introduced to Kauai in 1931 from Malaysia by American ornithologist Alexander Isenberger. In 1940, Hui Manu Society, Hawaiian bird society founded to acclimatize exotic birds, brought this species to Oahu. Introduced to Maui in 1950s. Birds from these islands most likely flew to other Hawaiian islands where now found. Invasive in Hawaii & Taiwan due to preying on native insects & eggs of small birds as well as aggression towards native birds. These birds highly territorial. These birds fairly shy in wild but tame very easily in captivity. Females lay clutches of 4-5 eggs & can lay up to 5 clutches a year. During courtship, male pursues female, giving shrill call & fanning out tail feathers. Next, both sexes engage in rising/falling flight pattern. If male unsuccessful, female does open-mouth threat towards male. Declining in parts of range due to habitat loss & bird trade. While both parents look after chicks, females do all the incubation & nest-building. Males w/ longer tails often have larger territories. Chicks leave parents at 1-2 months old & reach maturity at 4-6 months old. Fun Fact(s): They’re popular cage birds due to their songs. One of the 1st ever bird song recordings came from this species. Sound recordist Ludwig Koch used an Edison wax cylinder to record in 1889. These birds have loud rich melodious songs w/ variety of phrases. They can even mimic other birds. They also make ‘Tck’ call when foraging or alarmed.