ANIMAL: Northern Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis Type of Animal: Songbird Habitat: Gardens, woodland/woodland edge, shrubland, wetlands, thickets/thicket edges, open fields, backyards, urban green spaces, suburban shrub plantings, suburban conifer plantings, grasslands w/ thickets & shrubbery, dense shrubby forest edge, overgrown fields, hedgerows, dense mesquite areas, forests/forest clearings, dense shrubby ornamental landscaping, towns, suburbs, desert washes, swamps, parks, residential areas, tall brush, mesquite groves, agricultural areas, urban areas, temperate grassland, tropical savanna, desert Location(s): SE Canada, E & C US as well as S New Mexico, S Arizona, S California, & extreme S Nevada, Mexico, Belize, N Guatemala. Introduced in Hawaii, Bermuda, & S California. Appearance: Male vibrant red/crimson w/ black mask/noticeable crest, female fawn to reddish olive/olive-brown w/ dark gray to faded black mask/much smaller crest, sometimes come in yellow mutation Food/Diet: Weed seeds, white milo seeds, sunflower seeds, safflower seeds, dogwood seeds, grass seeds, buckwheat seeds, sedge seeds, peanuts, suet, grains, berries, fruit, vegetables, maple sap, elm tree bark/blossoms, buds, weeds, insects, snails, spiders, centipedes, carrion Status in Wild: Stable Conservation: Not applicable Lifestyle: Flocks range from 2-60 birds. Break off into pairs for breeding/nesting season. Flocks of all younger birds common. Additional Info: Called: Male: Cock Female: Hen Young: Chick Group: Flock Weight: 1.5 oz Gestation: 2 weeks Life Span: 3-6 years in wild, 10-15 years in captivity Height: 8.2-9.3 in Body Length: 8.2-9.3 in Tail Length: 4 in Main predators of adults are felids, canids, raptors, shrikes, gray/fox squirrels, snakes, bears, weasels, otters, corvids, crocodilians, raccoons, opossums, & skunks. Red squirrels & chipmunks eat chicks. Cowbirds & house wrens eat eggs. Also called redbird, common cardinal, red cardinal, & cardinal grosbeak. Lay 3-4 eggs per clutch & raise 2-4 clutches a year. Since they’re nonmigratory, they’ll fluff up down feathers as way of keeping cold air from reaching them. Fun Fact(s): State bird of 7 US states-Illinois, Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, Virginia, W Virginia, & N Carolina. St Louis baseball team (St Louis Cardinals) & Phoenix football team (Arizona Cardinals) named for these birds. These birds also mascots for Ball State University, Illinois State University (the Redbirds), University of Louisville, St John Fisher College, SUNY-Plattsburgh, Wesleyan University, Otterbein University, & Lamar University among others. Name comes from cardinals of Catholic Church, who wore distinctive red robes/caps. Males extremely territorial during breeding season, often fighting to death w/ each other. Males often seen fighting reflection. Females often seen doing this too. Icon of game Angry Birds is male Northern Cardinal.