ANIMAL: Masked Bobwhite Colinus ridgwayi Type of Animal: Gamebird Habitat: Plains, savanna, desert/semidesert grassland, pastures, semiarid grassland, desert/semidesert scrub, subtropical/tropical grassland, farm fields, agricultural fields, farmland, thornscrub, grass-forb habitats along drainages, semidesert savanna, mesas, weedy bajios (lowland depressions), weedy bottomlands, grassy valleys, herb-strewn valleys, river valleys, areas w/ grass-weed cover, found as high as 4,000 ft Location(s): S Arizona, Mexican states of Sonora, Oaxaca, & Chiapas, parts of Guatemala Appearance: Males have cinnamon breast, black head/throat, varying amount of white above eye, brownish wings, females mottled-brown above, buff head, whitish breast, males darker than females, short plump birds, females drabber Food/Diet: Seeds, grains, forbs, plant matter, insects, leaves, buds, berries, roots, acorns, snails, spiders, ticks, legumes, fruit, flowers Status in Wild: Endangered Conservation: Breeding in zoos & wildlife centers. Sutton Center founded in 1983 near Bartlesville, Oklahoma became involved in establishing breeding population in 1996 to reintroduce them to Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge on Arizona-Mexico border. Over 1,000 birds have been reintroduced. Doing better in Mexico than in US. Reintroductions in Sonora as well. Sometimes refuge-raised chicks returned to wild after being fostered by sterilized male Northern Bobwhites. Lifestyle: Coveys number 7-20 birds Additional Info: Called: Male: Cock Female: Hen Young: Chick Group: Covey Weight: Male: 5.95 oz Female: 5.74 oz Gestation: 23 days Life Span: 2-3 years in wild, 7-9 years in captivity Height: Male: 10.5 in Female: 8.5 in Body Length: Male: 10.5 in Female: 8.5 in Tail Length: Male: 2.5 in Female: 2 in Main predators of adults are raptors, snakes, bobcats, cats, foxes, coyotes, procyonids, skunks, opossums, heloderm lizards, & pigs. Roadrunners eat chicks. Endangered due to drought, livestock overgrazing, reduced plant diversity, habitat fragmentation, habitat degradation, lack of fire, spread of exotic grasses, & climate change. Females lay clutches of 5-20 eggs, often producing up to 3 broods a year. Utilize patches of vegetation to protect themselves from predators & high temperatures. Chicks highly precocial, leaving nest on 1st day. Capable of 1st flight by 2 weeks. Gain adult plumage by 3 months. Sexually mature at 6 months old. Nests constructed on ground w/ bowl-shaped depressions in native grasses well-concealed & lined w/ dead grass. Spend most of their time on the ground, only flying short distances. Fun Fact(s): Can go without food for quite a while due to being able to store food in crop. Parents sometimes feign wing injuries to discourage predators. Called Bobwhites due to courtship call of male.